August 2013
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Travel – Lake Titicaca – Bolivia – Part 3

Lake Titicaca is a lake in the Andes on the boundary of Peru and Bolivia.

Geology of Lake Titicaca

• The Tinajani Basin, wherein Lake Titicaca lies, is an intermontane river basin.
• The preliminary growth and development of the Tinajani Basin is signified by volcanic rocks, which collected between around 20 million years back in this basin.
• They rest upon an angular nonconformity cutbacks across pre-basin strata.
• Lacustrine sediments of the Lower Tinajani Creation that are uncovered within the Tinajani Basin display the existence of a pre-Quaternary ancestral Lake Titicaca within it.
• Little is understood concerning the prehistory of Lake Titicaca between fourteen million years back and 370,000 BP since the lake sediments dating to this time lay cremated beneath the bottom part of Lake Titicaca that have not still been sampled by constant coring.
• The Lake Titicaca drilling venture reclaimed a 136-m-long drill core of sediments from the bottom part of Lake Titicaca at a level of 235 m.
• This core consists of a continual record of lake sedimentation and also paleoenvironmental circumstances for Lake Titicaca back in approximately 370, 000 BP.
• With this time period, Lake Titicaca was generally fresher and needed greater lake levels during intervals of extended regional glaciations that corresponded to worldwide glacial intervals.
• In the course of intervals of decreased regional glaciations that corresponded to universal inter-glacial periods, Lake Titicaca had generally lower lake levels.
• Lacustrine sediments and associated verandas provide proof for the past existence of 5 primary prehistoric lakes that engaged the Tinajani Basin throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

Within the northern region of Altiplano (Tinajani Basin), these types of prehistoric lakes were:
– Lake Mataro at an altitude of 3,950 m
– Lake Cabana at an altitude of 3,900 m
– Lake Ballivian at an altitude of 3,860 m
– Lake (North) Minchin at an altitude of 3,825 m
– Lake (North) Tauca at an altitude 3,815 m
• The era of Lake Mataro is unsure and might be as old as Late Pliocene.
• Lake Cabana likely dates to the Middle Pleistocene.
• Lake Ballivian has been around between 120,000 and 98,000 BP.
• Two high lakes are mounted, between 72,000 – 68,000 BP and 44,000 – 34,000 BP and happen to be discerned for Lake Minchin within the Altiplano.
• The higher lake levels of Lake Tauca happen to be dated as having cropped up between 18 ,100 and 14 ,100 BP .

Islands on Lake Titicaca

• Amantani is a compact island on Lake Titicaca heavily populated by Quechua speakers.
• Approximately 4,000 people reside in 10 communities on approximately fifteen sq kilometres(6 sq mi) circular island.
• There are 2 mountain peaks referred to as Pachatata (Father Earth) as well as Pachamama (Mother Earth) and early ruins at the top of both peaks are also found.
• The hillsides that rise up from the lake are terraced as well as grown with:
– wheat
– potatoes
– vegetables
• Many of the small fields are labored manually.
• Long stone fences separate the fields, and cattle and sheep graze on the hillsides.
• You will discover there are no cars on the islet.
• Because devices are not permitted on the island, almost all agriculture is carried out manually.
• A couple of small stores provide basic goods, and you can find a health facility and six schools.
• Electricity was manufactured by a generator and minimal power was supplied for a few hours every day; however with the increasing cost of the petroleum, they no more make use of the generator.
• The majority of families make use of candles or flashlights driven by batteries or hand-cranks.
• Compact solar power panels have been recently established in certain homes.
• A few of the families on Amantani open up their houses to visitors for over-night stays and offer cooked meals.
• The families who do this ought to have an exclusive room put aside for the visitors and suit a code by the visitor companies that assist them.
• Visitors usually take food staples (cooking oil, rice, etc. but absolutely no sugar products, since they do not have a dental center) as a present or as supplies for the school kids on the island.
• They maintain nightly conventional dance shows for the visitors wherein they have to dress them up in their conventional clothes and participate.

Best time to visit / climate

• Lake Titicaca offers an Alpine climate.
• It has cool to cold temperatures for almost the entire year.
• The annual precipitation on an average is estimated to be about 610 mm.
• Winters are dry.
• Winters are experienced with very cold nights and mornings.
• The afternoons are although warm.

Location on Google Maps

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How to get there?

• There is a train available starting from Cusco to Puno.
• It takes about ten hours to travel.
• Train tickets can be availed at the website:

1. By flight
• Airline travel is the obvious approach to get to Bolivia; the primary airports are situated in La Paz to the western part of the country as well as in Santa Cruz to the east.
• The arrival strategy has to be designed in the purpose of the travel to the country.
• You must remember that La Paz gets the majority of their visitors because of the immense culture and heritage from the Incas as well as other native cultures from the Andean area.
• From La Paz it will be simpler to move to:
– Tiwanaku ruins
– Oruro’s carnival
– Potosí’s mines
– Uyuni
– Lake Titicaca
– Los Yungas valley
– Andes Mountains
• This is because La Paz has the hold of:
– Government
– All of the embassies
– Foreign establishments possess their head office in the city
• These can be useful in the event of an emergency.
• On the other side, Santa Cruz with a warm climate can turn out to be a good area for doing business visit additional alternatives in tourism. These are like the:
– Missions
– Noel Kempff Mercado national park
– Eastern cities
• In addition, there are some foreign consulates in Santa Cruz.
• However, do not forget that the metropolitan areas in the south and central Bolivia also provide an extremely rich experience.
• The cities are such as:
– Cochabamba
– Tarija
– Sucre
• There are many methods to get to these cities from La Paz or Santa Cruz.

2. From Europe
• Following on from Aerosur’s loss of life in September 2012, the perfect options from Europe to Bolivia now are with Air Europa or Boliviana de Aviacion from Madrid to Santa Cruz.
• Additional connections can be achieved in neighboring nations like Brazil or Peru, or in the U.S.
• The price might go from 1000-1200€ to other greater prices based on the class and duration.

3. From Latin America
• Airlines that take a flight into Bolivia from other Latin American countries consist of:
– LAN from Santiago via Iquique
– From Lima to La Paz
– From TACA Perú to La Paz
– From Lima to La Paz

4. From USA
• You will find departures from Miami to La Paz and also Santa Cruz on American Airlines.
• Connectivity is also possible on Latin American airlines like:
– Copa
– Avianca
As soon as you have the international trip booked, it’s much simpler and cheaper to arrange the internal flights from the place of departure.

5. By Train
• There are numerous train lines in Bolivia, each one with different degrees of quality and performance.
• Nevertheless, sufficient transportation via train can be obtained.
• The FCA schedule can be obtained at their website.
• Keep an eye on the belongings.

6. By car
• It is usual for visitors to travel by means of a land border at the north-east of Chile/ South-West of Bolivia.
• Remember that approximately 5% of most of the roads in Bolivia are smooth.
• Nevertheless, the majority of primary routes between cities are paved. The cities are like:
– Aka big cities
– Santa Cruz
– La Paz
– Cochabamba
– Sucre
• 4×4 is especially needed when off the flatter altiplano.
• Remember that in mountainous areas of traffic occasionally switches edges of the road.
• That is to make sure the driver has a much better view of the harmful drops.
• An international driver’s license is needed but on most occasions EU or US drivers licenses will likely be accepted.
• You will find frequent police controls on the highway and tolls to be paid for road use.

7. By Bus
• There are numerous options for touring from Argentina to Bolivia by bus.
• Take a look at the Bolivian Embassy’s website in Argentina for particular options.
• In addition there is a bus that operates from Juliaca and Puno in Peru to Copacabana.

8. By Boat
• It will be common for visitors to get to Bolivia by boat, by navigating from the port city of Puno, Peru, over Lake Titicaca.

Some Travel Books on Bolivia

Lonely Planet Bolivia For 91 Days in Bolivia Bolivia in Focus

Places to stay (hotels / restaurants along with website / contact numbers)

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Blogs/Sites about Lake Titicaca – Bolivia

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Images and photos about Lake Titicaca – Bolivia

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Videos about Lake Titicaca – Bolivia

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